Completed Projects from Warriors Research Institute

For more than a decade, the WRI Team has been involved in a wide array of empirical research studies. Previous studies conducted by the WRI were made possible by grant funding from a variety of sources, including FEMA and NIMH. If you have any questions about our previous studies, please contact us.

Rapid GrantRapid Grant

  • NIMH RAPID R01 Award to Dr. Rose T. Zimering "Assessing secondary trauma in disaster relief clinicians."
  • Principal Investigators: Dr. Rose T. Zimering and Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver
  • Funding Period: 04/01/02 – 02/28/04
  • Collaborators: Barbara Kamholz, Sandra Morissette, Jeff Knight, Jim Monroe, Erin Scott Daly, Terry Keane and Lt. William Ostiguy
  • Research Assistants: Todd Mattuchio and Theresa Fesperman

Summary

In the days and weeks following the devastating events of 9/11/01, our research group was fortunate to provide clinical support at Logan Airport to the families who lost people in the airplane crashes. This gave rise to the NIMH Rapid Grant, where we had the opportunity to assess whether providing disaster relief services resulted in vicarious or secondary traumatization to disaster relief providers, such as the firefighter CISM team members that travelled to Ground Zero.

The Rapid Project focused on aspects of secondary trauma in emergency responders with the specific aim of understanding more about secondary PTSD. Findings from this study supported the idea that secondary PTSD exists. Between 4-6% of first responders report acute stress episodes during their time helping others on the scene of an emergency. Overall, there is a cost to providing peer support, but it eventually resolves.

Publications

Zimering, R. T., Munroe, J., & Gulliver, S. B. (2003). Secondary traumatization in mental health care providers. Psychiatric Times, 4, 43-47.

Kamholz, B. W., Gulliver, S. B., & Zimering, R. T. (2005). From phrenology to behavioral genetics. International Pediatrics, 20(4), 197-199.

Zimering, R. T., Gulliver, S. B., Knight, J., Munroe, J., & Keane, T. M. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers following direct and indirect trauma exposure to Ground Zero. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 553-557. PMID: 16929511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20143

Daly, E. S., Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., Knight, J., Kamholz, B. W., & Morissette, S. B.  (2008). Disaster mental health workers responding to ground zero: One year later.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(2), 227-230. PMID: 17286342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts

Presentations

Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., Knight, J., Munroe, J., Greene, J., Wolfsdorf, B. A., Baker-Morissette, S., & Mattuchio, T. (2002, November). Secondary trauma in disaster relief clinicians at Ground Zero. Paper session presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Baltimore, MD.

Munroe, J., Zimering, R. T., Gulliver, S. B., Knight, J., Greene, J., Wolfsdorf, B. A., Baker-Morissette, S., & Mattuchio, T. (2002, November). Secondary trauma in Red Cross workers at Logan airport post 9/11. Paper session presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Baltimore, MD.

Knight, J. A., Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., Mattuchio, T., Munroe, J. F., Wolfsdorf, B. A., & Baker-Morissette, S. (2003, October). Symptom development and resilience in “9/11” disaster relief providers. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Knight, J. A., Zimering, R. T., Gulliver, S. B., Munroe, J. M., Mattuchio, T., Baker-Morissette, S., & Wolfsdorf, B. A. (2003, October). Patterns of stressor exposure in “9/11” disaster relief workers. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., Knight, J. A., Munroe, J. F., Mattuchio, T., Baker-Morissette, S., & Wolfsdorf, B. A. (2003, October). PTSD in disaster relief clinicians at ground zero. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Fesperman, T. H., Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., & Knight, J. A. (2004, March). Potential response channels for distress: Increased health complaints contrasted with stable psychological symptoms among 9/11 disaster relief workers. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Fesperman, T., Scott, E. L., Zimering, R. T., Gulliver, S. B., & Knight, J. (2004, November). Somatic symptom endorsement in 9/11 disaster relief clinicians. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, New Orleans, LA.

ASD GrantASD Grant

  • NIMH R21 Award to Dr. Rose Zimering "Developing group treatments for acute stress disorder."
  • Principal Investigators: Dr. Rose T. Zimering and Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver
  • Funding Period: 04/01/03 – 02/28/06
  • Collaborators: Jeff Knight, Erin Scott Daly, Terry Keane and Lt. William Ostiguy
  • Research Assistants: Theresa Fesperman and Christine Gillis

Summary

This three-year longitudinal study, “Developing group treatments for acute stress disorder” (ASD) focused on creating an alternative to critical stress debriefing. A one-session training was developed, and beta tested with fire leadership. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of PTSD, depression, and substance use in nearly 200 active duty firefighters was completed.

Publications

Kimbrel, N. A., Steffen, L. E., Meyer, E. C., Kruse, M. I., Knight, J. A., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B.(2011). A revised measure of occupational stress for firefighters: Psychometric properties and relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance abuse. Psychological Services,8(4), 294-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025845

Meyer, E. C., Zimering, R., Daley, E., Knight, J. K., Kamholz, B. W., & Gulliver, S. B. (2012). Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters. Psychological Services, 9(1), 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026414

Presentations

Scott, E. L., Knight, J., Gulliver, S. B., & Zimering, R. T. (2005). The cost of firefighting: Prevalence of PTSD and substance use. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Toronto, CA.

Project RECRUITProject RECRUIT

  • NIMH R01 Award "Pathways of Risk and Resilience in Firefighter Recruits"
  • Principal Investigators: Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver and Dr. Rose T. Zimering
  • Funding Period: 09/02/06 – 07/31/13
  • Collaborators: Barbara Kamholz, Sandra Morissette, Jeff Knight, Jim Monroe, Erin Scott Daly, Michael Lyons, Dan King, Lynda King, Tom Carpenter, Eric Meyer and Nate Kimbrel
  • Program Manager: Cindy Zavodny
  • Post-doctoral Fellows: Marc Kruse, Yonit Schoor, Joseph VanderVeen, Anthony Giardina, and David Meyers
  • Research Assistants: Christine Gillis, Christian Herwitz, Erin Keppel, Laurie Steffen, Amruta Mardikar, Samuel Reyna, Lisa Flynn, Ashley Devereux, Grace Carpenter, Michelle Pennington, Victoria Torres and Samantha Synett

Summary

Pathways of Risk and Resilience in Firefighter Recruits is a longitudinal assessment study funded by NIMH to prospectively identify the pathways to psychopathology as a response to potentially traumatic events, explore the temporal nature of the patterns of risk, recovery, relapse, and resilience, and test the ability of pre-employment variables to predict entry into one of the hypothesized pathways.

328 firefighter recruits were assessed upon entering the fire academy, every 4 months by phone, and in person once a year. Data analysis is ongoing. Preliminary results include the finding that trauma exposure, or frequency of PTEs, in and of itself did not predict psychopathology or symptomatology. However, “perceived social support, occupational stress, coping, as well as the interaction between perceived social support and self-blame were significant predictors of symptoms” (Meyer et al, 1, 2012). VanderVeen et al (2012) found that smoking relapse was significantly associated with greater weekly rates of drinking in firefighter recruits’ first year in fire service. Kruse et al (2011) explored the differences in drinking between firefighters who were veterans and those who were nonveterans. Veterans in fire service were more likely to drink to cope with negative emotions or thoughts when compared to nonveterans. Veterans were also more likely to drink significantly more per episode than nonveterans. Kruse et al (2010) also found that occupational stress was significantly associated with higher levels of drinking in the first year of fire service among all firefighter recruits.

Other important findings over the course of this study are not directly related to the specific aims. Kimbrel et al (2011) developed a modified instrument to measure occupational stress in firefighters. From the original 57-item Sources of Occupational Stress (SOOS) measure, Kimbrel et al tested a 14-item version of the SOOS. The internal consistency of the SOOS-14 was good (α = .82). Additional assessment development work is underway.

Firefighter Risk & Resilience Study Newsletters

Publications

Gulliver, S. B., & Steffen, L. E. (2010). Towards integrated treatments for PTSD and substance use disorders. PTSD Research Quarterly, 21(2), 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e571962010-002

Kimbrel, N. A., Steffen, L. E., Meyer, E. C., Kruse, M. I., Knight, J. A., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2011). A revised measure of occupational stress for firefighters: Psychometric properties and relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance abuse. Psychological Services8(4), 294-306. doi:10.1037/a0025845

Kruse, M. I., Steffen, L. E., Kimbrel, N. A., & Gulliver, S. B. (2011).  Co-Occurring PTSD and Substance Use Disorders.  Psychosocial treatment of co-morbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Substance use Disorders.  In B.A. Moore & W.E. Penk (Eds.) Handbook for the Treatment of PTSD in Military Personnel.  New York: Guilford Press.

VanderVeen, J. W., Gulliver, S. B., Morissette, S. B., Kruse, M. I., Kamholz, B. W., Zimering, R. T., & ... Keane, T. M. (2012). Differences in drinking patterns, occupational stress, and exposure to potentially traumatic events among firefighters: Predictors of smoking relapse. The American Journal on Addictions, 21(6), 550-554. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2012.00282.x

Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R., Carpenter, G. S., Giardina, A., & Farrar, J. (2014). The Psychological Consequences of Disaster. In P. Ouimmette & J. P. Read, Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Consequences and Treatment of Comorbid Disasters (125-141). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Presentations

Knight, J. A., Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R., Kamholz, B., Morissette, S., Munroe, J., Meyer, D. L., Keppel, E., and Herwitz, C. (2008, August). Prospective Analysis of Risk and Resilience Variables in Firefighters. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Meyer, D., Gulliver, S. B., Vasterling, J. J., & Ellis, B. (2008). Recruitment/Retention in Trauma Research: Meeting the Challenge of Special Populations, Symposium at 2008 Annual APA Convention.

Gulliver, S. B. & Zimering, R. T. (2008, August). Trauma research in firefighters: Challenges of recruitment and retention. APA Annual Convention, Boston, MA.

Meyer, D. L., Knight, J. A., Zimering, R., Gulliver, S. B., Kamholz, B., Morissette, S., Munroe, J., Keppel, E., & Herwitz, C. (2008, August). Preliminary Report on Prospective Firefighter Recruit Study. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Meyer, D., Gulliver, S. B., Kamholz, B. W., Morissette, S. B., Knight, J., & Zimering, R. (2008, November). Conceptual and methodological issues in longitudinal trauma-related research. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Meyer, D., Smith, L., McNeill, S., Liverant, G., Kamholz, B., & Gulliver, S. B. (2008, November). Relationship between religious coping and PTSD symptoms among firefighter recruits. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Herwitz, C., Keppel, E. M., Zimering, R. T., Kamholz, B. W., Meyer, D. L., Gulliver, S. B., Morissette, S. B., Munroe, J., & Knight, J. A. (2009, April). Self-Assessment of Mental Health and Social Support in Firefighters. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Kruse, M. I., Keppel., E. M., Meyer, D. L., Morissette, S. B., Kamholz, B. W., Munroe, J., Knight, J., Herwitz, C., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2009, June). Changes in heavy drinking during the first year of fire service:  Results from a longitudinal study of firefighter recruits. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, San Diego, CA. *

Kruse, M. I., Steffen, L. E., Keppel, E. M., Morissette, S. B., Kamholz, B. W., Munroe, J., Knight, J., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, August). Predictors of changes in heavy drinking in fire fighter recruits. Poster submitted for presentation at the 118th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA.

Steffen, L. E., Mardikar, A. A., Kruse, M. I., Kamholz, B. W., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, November).  Aggression as a predictor of heavy drinking during the first year of fire service.  Poster presentation at the 26th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Kruse, M.I., Steffen, L.E., Keppel, E.M., Morissette, S.B., Kamholz, B.W., Munroe, J., Knight, J., Zimering, R.T., & Gulliver, S.B. (2010, June).  Evidence of problematic patterns of drinking in high-functioning OEF/OIF Veterans.  Poster presentation at the 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, San Antonio, TX.

Kruse, M.I., Morissette, S.B., Zimering, R.T., Kamholz, B.W., Knight, J., Kimbrel, N., & VanderVeen, J. (2011, March). Evidence of patterns of heavy drinking in military veterans recruited outside of the Veterans affairs health care system. Paper presented at the 31st Annual Conference of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, New Orleans, LA.

VanderVeen, J. W., Kruse, M. I., Reyna, S. H., Mardikar, A. A., Morissette, S. B., Kamholz, B. W., Munroe, J., Knight, J., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2011, February). Differences in drinking patterns among firefighters who report cigarette smoking during their first year of fire service. Poster presentation at the 17th annual meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Toronto, Canada.

Kruse, M. I., Morissette, S. B., Meyer, E. C., Kimbrel, N. A., Kamholz, B., Knight, J., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2014, June). Patterns and predictors of heavy drinking during the first three years of fire service. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Bellevue, WA. *

Gulliver, S. B., Pennington, M. L., Torres, V. A., Synett, S., & Zimering, R. T. (2015, May). Health risk behaviors in a risky profession: The tobacco and alcohol use of firefighters in their first years of service. Poster presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of Scott and White Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Pennington, M. L., Synett, S. J., Torres, V. A., Brown, J. M. & Gulliver, S. B. (2015, May). Does Exposure to Natural Disaster Increase Risk and Vulnerability to Health Problems and Depression in an at Risk Population? Poster presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of Scott and White Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Pennington, M. L., Synett, S. J., Torres, V. A., & Gulliver, S. B. (2015, April). Does Exposure to Natural Disaster Increase Risk and Vulnerability to Health Problems and Depression in an at Risk Population? Poster presented at the 36th Annual Meeting of Society of Behavioral Medicine, San Antonio, TX.

Gulliver, S. B., Pennington, M. L., Torres, V. A., Synett, S., & Zimering, R. T. (2015, February). Health risk behaviors in a risky profession: The tobacco and alcohol use of firefighters in their first years of service. Poster presented at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Philadelphia, PA.

Gomez, D. R., Torres, V. A., Pennington, M. L., Carpenter, T. P., Maness, A. G., Morissette, S. B., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2016, May). The relationship between exercise, social support, and depression in firefighter recruits. Poster presented at Baylor Scott & White Health Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Torres, V. A., Gomez, D. R., Pennington, M. L., Carpenter, T. P., Maness, A. G., Morissette, S. B., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2016, May). How does lifetime recreational drug use relate to nicotine use in the first 3 years of fire service? Poster presented at Baylor Scott & White Health Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Manuscripts in Development

Gulliver, S. B., Zimering, R. T., MacDonald, H. Z., Morissette, S. B., Kamholz, B. W., Daly, E. S., Lyons, M., Knight, J., & Keane, T. (submitted).  PTSD and Substance Use Disorders in Firefighters: Risk and Resilience.

Note: * indicates abstract was published.

Project PREVENTProject PREVENT

  • FEMA Award "Texas A&M/IAFF Partnership for the Study of Implementation of State-of-the-Art Behavioral Health Programs into Fire Service Culture: A FY 2007 Fire and Safety Proposal"
  • Principal Investigator: Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver
  • Funding Period: 07/18/08 - 01/17/10
  • Collaborators: Lt. William Ostiguy, Patrick Morrison, Capt. Frank Leto, Dr. Rose Zimering, and Dr. Claire Cammarata
  • Research Assistants: Laurie Steffen and Amruta Mardikar

Summary

Project PREVENT was a study funded by FEMA that consisted of 20 focus groups where participants defined optimal behavioral health programs (BHP), brainstormed the barriers to creation and utilization of BHPs, and brainstormed the solutions to creating and motivating people to use BHPs. This information was used to create an anonymous questionnaire about healthcare utilization barriers and solutions that was then posted on the IAFF website and sent to volunteer fire service. Between the professional and volunteer firefighter samples over 2,000 questionnaires were filled out. We are currently drafting a manuscript detailing the results of the questionnaire study.

Publications

Kimbrel, N. A., Steffen, L. E., Meyer, E. C., Kruse, M. I., Knight, J. A., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2011). A revised measure of occupational stress for firefighters: Psychometric properties and relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance abuse. Psychological Services,8(4), 294-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025845

Manuscripts in Development

Gulliver, S. B., Pennington, M. L., Torres, V. A., Steffen, L. E., Mardikar, A., DeCoud, G., Kimbrel, N. A., & Zimering, R. (in preparation). Behavioral Health Programs in Fire Service: Surveying Preferences and Utilization.

Presentations

Denman, T., Pennington, M., Maness, A. G., Torres, V., Gomez, D., & Gulliver, S. B. (2016, May). Do female firefighters have more stigma concerns regarding behavioral health services than male firefighters? Poster presented at Baylor Scott & White Health Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Gulliver, S. B., Steffen, L. E., Zimering, R. T., Leto, F., Tapscott, R., Ostiguy, W., & Morrison, P. (2009, November). Behavioral Health Programs in Fire Service: Identifying Needs and Barriers through Focus Groups. Paper presented as part of a symposium at the APA’s Conference:  Work, Stress, and Health 2009: Global Concerns and Approaches, Puerto Rico.

Mardikar, A. A., Steffen, L. E., Kimbrel, N. A., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, June). Who is trained in CISM? A Comparison among Firefighters. Poster accepted for presentation at the 2010 World Congress of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Boston, MA.

Mardikar, A. A., Steffen, L. E., Kimbrel, N. A., Fay, C., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, August). Gender Differences in Barriers to Occupational Health in Fire Service. Poster accepted for presentation at the 118th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA.

Steffen, L. E., Mardikar, A. A., Kimbrel, N. A., Fay, C., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, August). Multi-method Approach to Studying Behavioral Health Implementation in Fire Service. Poster accepted for presentation at the 118th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA.

Steffen, L. E., Kimbrel, N. A., Meyer, E. C., Kruse, M. I., Knight, J. A., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2010, April). Psychometric properties of two abbreviated versions of the Sources of Occupational Stress (SOOS) scale: The SOOS-33 and the SOOS-14. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. Seattle, WA.

Project REACH OUTProject REACH OUT

  • 2010 FEMA Grant Award EMW-2010-FP-00597 to Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver "Motivational Intervention to Maximize Peer Behavioral Health Awareness and Skill"
  • Principal Investigator: Dr. Suzy Bird Gulliver
  • Funding Period: 07/09/11 – 07/08/13
  • Collaborators: Dr. Nathan Kimbrel, Lt. William Ostiguy, Patrick Morrison, Capt. Frank Leto, Dr. Claire Cammarata, Dr. Rose Zimering and Barbara Kamholz
  • Post-doctoral Fellows: Marc Kruse, Yonit Schoor, Joseph VanderVeen, Anthony Giardina and David Meyers
  • Research Assistants: Lisa Flynn, Amruta Mardikar, Grace Carpenter and Michelle Pennington

Summary

Project REACH OUT was a study funded by FEMA to evaluate an adaptation of an empirically-validated intervention known as Motivational Interviewing among firefighters. Adaptive Motivational Interviewing Training (AMIT) represented an ideal, cost-effective intervention because firefighters could be trained to use AMIT to encourage fellow firefighters to seek out appropriate treatment when needed. This study aimed to decrease firefighter mortality and morbidity by: (1) Evaluating the relative efficacy of Adaptive Motivational Interviewing Training (AMIT) compared to a control condition equated for time; and (2) Determining the most efficacious method of AMIT delivery (peer- and counselor-led vs. video-based). Participants included 172 career firefighters who reported an interest in learning behavioral health intervention skills. Participants were randomly assigned to a peer- and counselor-led AMIT condition, a computer-based AMIT condition, or a computer-based behavioral health awareness control condition. Measures assessing AMIT skills, frequency of interventions and behavioral health knowledge were administered before and after the trainings and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups.

The overall findings show that Condition 2 was the most effective means of training based on frequency and effectiveness of interventions. This method has several advantages over the traditional group format used in Condition 1, including lower cost and greater ease in dissemination compared to live training groups. Dissemination modalities include mailing DVDs to fire departments, uploading videos to websites, and showing the video as part of regularly scheduled continuing education trainings for firefighters.

Online video project description: Helping Your Fellow Firefighter (produced by WebsEdge 7/2013) - http://www.websedge.com/videos/government/#/helping_your_fellow_firefighter/

Using this sample combined with the ASD sample, Carpenter et al (2015) found that in firefighters who indicated low social support in their lives, occupational stress showed a positive association to suicidal ideation; however, in firefighters with high social support the two were unrelated, indicating that social support may act as a buffer between occupational stress and suicidal ideation.

Videos

Publications

Carpenter, G. S. J., Carpenter, T. P., Kimbrel, N. A., Flynn, E. J., Pennington, M. L., Zimering, R. T., Kamholz, B. W., & Gulliver, S. B. (2015). Social support, stress, and suicidal ideation in professional firefighters. American Journal of Health Behavior, 39(2), 191-196.

Gulliver, S. B., Cammarata, C. M., Leto, F., Ostiguy, W. J., Flynn, E. J., Carpenter, G. S. J., Kamholz, B. W., Zimering, R. T. & Kimbrel, N. A. (2015). Project Reach Out: A Training Program to Increase Behavioral Health Utilization Among Professional Firefighters. International Journal of Stress Management.

Kimbrel, N. A., Flynn, E. J., Carpenter, G. S. J., Cammarata, C. M., Leto, F., Ostiguy, W. J., Kamholz, B. W., Zimering, R. T., & Gulliver, S. B. (2015). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and predictive validity for a Likert-based version of the Sources of Occupational Stress-14 (SOOS-14) Scale. Psychiatry Research, 228(3), 961-962.

Presentations

Gulliver, S. B., Denman, T., Thomason, P. Pennington, M., Maness, A., Gomez, D., Leto, F., Cammarata, C., Zimering, R. T., Ostiguy, W., & Kimbrel, N. (2016, November).Teaching firefighters AMIT: Effective methods of peer training. Poster presented at the 32nd annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dallas, TX.

Torres, V. A., Pennington, M. L., Synett, S. J., Kimbrel, N., & Gulliver, S. B. (2015, April). Project reach out results: Who do firefighters try to help? Poster presented at the 36th annual meeting of Society of Behavioral Medicine, San Antonio, TX.*

Torres, V. A., Pennington, M. L., Synett, S. J., Kimbrel, N., Brown, J. M., & Gulliver, S. B. (2015, May). Project Reach Out Results: Who do firefighters try to help? Poster presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of Scott and White Academic Operations Research Days, Temple, TX.

Note: * indicates abstract was published.


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